Allergy information for: Cotton seed (Gossypium herbaceum )

  • Name: Cotton seed
  • Scientific Name: Gossypium herbaceum
  • Occurrence:
  • Allergy Information:
  • Other Information: The most important cottonseed product in human food is cottonseed oil, which is widely consumed. Cottonseed flour is comsumed as food (especially in Central America) but must be from a cultivar producing low levels of the toxic metabolite gossypol. Partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is used for colouring foods.
  • Taxonomic Information: NEWT http://www.ebi.ac.uk/newt/display?from=null&search=34274
  • Last modified: 18 October 2006

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    References (0)

      Clinical History

      • Number of Studies:1-5
      • Number of Patients:6-10
      • Symptoms:

        Patient ate whole grain bread, experienced tingling and itching in mouth, angioedema and generalised urticaria (Malanin and Kalimo 1988) [407 ]

        Angioedema, urticaria, pruritis, bronchospasm, dyspnea, laryngeal oedema, rhinitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of consciousness (range of symptoms experienced, all 7 patients usually experienced several symptoms at once) (Atkins et al. 1988 [269])

        Dysphagia, itching palms, wheezing, vomiting, loss of consciousness (O'Neil and Lehrer 1989 [446]).

      Skin Prick Test

      • Number of Studies:1-5
      • Food/Type of allergen:Commercial extract and extract of foods causing a reaction with phosphate buffered saline (1:10 w/v). Extracts were filtered through 0.45┬Ám pore filter and stored with 50% (v/v) glycerin (Atkins et al. 1988 [269]).
      • Protocol: (controls, definition of positive etc)

        Histamine (1mg/ml) and saline were positive and negative controls. Wheal diameters >3mm larger than negative control were taken as positive.

      • Number of Patients:9
      • Summary of Results:

        Bread extract produced 8x13mm wheal with pseudopods; crushed cottonseed produced 9x18mm wheal (Malanin and Kalimo 1988 [407 ])

        7 patients with a history of reactions to products containing cottonseed protein tested were positive to cottonseed extracts and to extracts from foods containing cotton seed (Atkins et al. 1988 [269]).

        One patient who suffered a reaction after eating a candy bar on an airliner was subsequently tested against cottonseed extract and phosphate buffered saline extract of candy bar - positive to cottonseed extract (O'Neil and Lehrer 1989 [446]).

      IgE assay (by RAST, CAP etc)

      • Number of Studies:0
      • Food/Type of allergen:
      • IgE protocol:
      • Number of Patients:7
      • Summary of Results:Atkins et al. 1988 [269] gives only total IgE levels (6-880 IU/ml) and no data on specific IgE or immunoblotting.

      Immunoblotting

      • Immunoblotting separation:
      • Immunoblotting detection method:
      • Immunoblotting results:Not performed

      Oral provocation

      • Number of Studies:1-5
      • Food used and oral provocation vehicle:Defatted cotton seed flour was blended into chilled vanilla flavoured Vivonex (Norwich-Eaton Pharmaceutical).
      • Blind:Yes
      • Number of Patients:2
      • Dose response:Increasing doses of 100, 350, 500mg of cottonseed flour were given. One patient experienced symptoms after the third dose (500mg); the other after the first (Atkins et al. 1988 [269]).
      • Symptoms:Chest tightness, large falls in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second), FVC (forced expiratory vital capacity), in both patients; pharyngeal pruritis, lip swelling, nausea in one patient only (Atkins et al. 1988 [269]).

      IgE cross-reactivity and Polysensitisation

      Other Clinical information

      There is also a much earlier literature (1920s - 1950s) which confirm that cottonseed is a potent allergen, particularly as a consequence of occupational exposure. Spies et al. (1951) [793] purified an allergen called CS-1A using a scratch test as an assay. This was shown by Youle and Huang (1979) [249] to be identical with the 2S albumin.

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        References (5)

        • Spies JR, Coulson EJ, Chambers DC, Bernton HS, Stevens H, Shimp JH.
          The Chemistry of Allergens. XI. Properties and Composition of Natural Proteoses Isolated from Oilseeds and Nuts by the CS-1A Procedure
          J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73(8); 3995-4001.. 1951
          PUBMEDID:
        • Youle RJ, Huang AHC
          Albumin storage protein and allergens in cottonseeds.
          J Agric Food Chem 27: 500-503.. 1979
          PUBMEDID: 582177
        • Atkins FM , Wilson M, Bock AS
          Cottonseed hypersensitivity: new concerns over an old problem.
          J Allergy Clin Immunol 82: 242-250.. 1988
          PUBMEDID: 3403864
        • O'Neil CE, Lehrer SB
          Anaphylaxis apparently caused by a cottonseed-containing candy ingested on a commercial airliner
          J Allergy Clin Immunol 84: 407. 1989
          PUBMEDID: 2778246
        • Malanin G and Kalimo K
          Angioedema and urticaria caused by cottonseed protein in whole-grain bread.
          J Allergy Clin Immunol 82: 261-264.. 1988
          PUBMEDID: 3403866

        Biochemical Information for 2S albumin

        • Allergen Name:2S albumin
        • Alternatve Allergen Names:CS-1A
        • Allergen Designation:
        • Protein Family:PF00234; tryp_alpha_amyl; 2S albumin seed storage protein
        • Sequence Known?:No
        • Allergen accession No.s:N/A
        • 3D Structure Accession No.:Not determined
        • Calculated Masses:N/A
        • Experimental Masses:15 kDa
        • Oligomeric Masses:N/A
        • Allergen epitopes:Not known
        • Allergen stability:
          Process, chemical, enzymatic:
          Allergenicity survives heating to 100 degrees C for 1 hour in the extraction method of Spies' group.
        • Nature of main cross-reacting proteins:None known
        • Allergen properties & biological function:2S albumin seed storage protein.
        • Allergen purification:3g of dehulled cottonseed is homogenised in 100ml of PBS for 20min. Crude extract centrifuged at 10000g for 30 min and aqueous supernatant collected. The 2S albumins were purified by sucrose density centrifugation.
        • Other biochemical information:

        References (2)

        • Spies JR, Coulson EJ, Chambers DC, Bernton HS, Stevens H, Shimp JH.
          The Chemistry of Allergens. XI. Properties and Composition of Natural Proteoses Isolated from Oilseeds and Nuts by the CS-1A Procedure
          J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73(8); 3995-4001.. 1951
          PUBMEDID:
        • Youle RJ, Huang AHC
          Albumin storage protein and allergens in cottonseeds.
          J Agric Food Chem 27: 500-503.. 1979
          PUBMEDID: 582177