Projects relating to Self-Harm

MaSH projects: ongoing

The Manchester Self-Harm Project - 1 April 1997 to 31 March 2018


The purpose of MaSH is to inform local services about self-harm patients and contribute to national research. We disseminate our findings at national and international conferences, in peer reviewed journals and locally to service providers. Locally, MaSH data is presented at clinical audit meetings, research and development forums and in the training of staff and medical students.


  • To monitor patterns of self-harm locally
  • To evaluate self-harm services
  • To provide the evidence on which service development and training may be based
  • To provide an infrastructure for further research on patterns of self-harm and their clinical management
  • To inform and make recommendations on national suicide prevention initiatives.

Duration of the project

2008 to 2017

Funding body

The Manchester Self-Harm Project is funded by The Department of Health as a part of the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.  The Project continues to produce reports on self-harm presentations to local Emergency Departments and to produce peer reviewed papers.

Members of the project

Professor Nav KapurPrincipal investigator
Miss Caroline ClementsResearch associate
Miss Harriet BickleyResearch associate
Miss Bushra FarooqResearch assistant
Mr Iain DonaldsonResearch Secretary
Miss Jacqueline WardClerical Assistant

How and Where MaSH Operates

The MaSH Project monitors and collects information on all patients presenting following a self-harm episode to three emergency departments in the City of Manchester.

Working Practices

The MaSH Project team is bound by strict confidentiality policies. No identifiable data is ever released and only anonymous and aggregate data are published.
MaSH is identified as an audit by the Local Research Ethics Committees of the National Research Ethics Service.
The MaSH Project operates to the principles established in the Caldicott Report, and has full data sharing protocols with the participating sites.
MaSH operates to ISO/IEC 27002 (BS7799), is fully compliant with the provisions of the Data Protection Act 1998 and receives NIGB support under Section 251 of the National Health Service Act 2006.
The information collected by the MaSH Project Team includes details of the self-harm episode, socio-demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, current mental state, clinical assessment of risk and subsequent management.
MaSH also acts as a research resource for additional projects.

Mortality Follow-Up Privacy Notice

The Manchester Self-Harm Project collects data on everyone who presents to an emergency department in the City of Manchester following self-harm. We collect these data in order to monitor self-harm rates over time, and to investigate different aspects of self-harm behaviour in its outcomes, which help to improve patient care.  

As part of our work we look at mortality in people who self-harm and to do this we securely share patient identifiable data with information services at NHS Digital. These data are linked to Civil Registration data, which can tell us whether the people we collect data on in Manchester are still alive, if they have died, or if they have lost contact with the NHS - for example by leaving the country.

The Manchester Self-Harm Project complies with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and NHS information governance procedures. The project also has a strict information security and management policy to ensure that any identifiable information we hold remains confidential and safe. The University of Manchester is the data controller for the Manchester Self-Harm project, which includes the follow-up mortality data. These data are processed under the GDPR legal basis of ‘task in the public interest’. A limited amount of follow-up information is shared with similar self-harm monitoring projects based at University of Oxford and Derbyshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, as part of the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. We do share date of death and cause of death, but we do not share any, names, addresses, or date of birth, or the NHS number of anyone we collect data on. Instead we use local study codes in our combined Multicentre Study data to link together data on each person.

If you have attended an emergency department in Manchester for self-harm, and have any concerns about how your data is linked in the mortality follow-up, or you wish to opt-out of the follow-up, please contact us:

By phone on 0161 275 0719

By email to

Or, by post to The Manchester Self-Harm Project, Room 2.316 Jean McFarlane Building, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL.



  • Clements, C., Turnbull, P., Hawton, K., Geulayov, G., Waters, K., Ness, J., ... Kapur, N. (2016). Rates of self-harm presenting to general hospitals: a comparison of data from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England and Hospital Episode Statistics. BMJ open, 6(2), e009749. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009749. Publication link: 9b635fcc-dbaf-49a9-b550-ba8bb7ea2436 | PubMed:26883238
  • Geulayov, G., Kapur, N., Turnbull, P., Clements, C., Waters, K., Ness, J., ... Hawton, K. (2016). Epidemiology and trends in non-fatal self-harm in three centres in England, 2000-2012: findings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England. BMJ open, 6(4), e010538. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010538. Publication link: 82c90072-c5bf-4c81-9a7e-341599c45327 | PubMed:27130163
  • Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Geulayov, G., Waters, K., Ness, J., Cooper, J., & Kapur, N. (2016). Impact of the recent recession on self-harm: Longitudinal ecological and patient-level investigation from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.Journal of affective disorders, 191. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.11.001. Publication link: 1e8c7b0f-4be1-48bb-a423-a5f639e587b5 | PubMed:26655123
  • Cooper, J., Steeg, S., Gunnell, D., Webb, R., Hawton, K., Bennewith, O., ... Kapur, N. (2015). Variations in the hospital management of self-harm and patient outcome: a multi-site observational study in England.Journal of affective disorders, 174, 101-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.11.037. Publication link: d3df9c04-a8bf-40f4-935a-50da17eda910 | PubMed:25496757
  • Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Cooper, J., Turnbull, P., Waters, K., Ness, J., & Kapur, N. (2015). Suicide following self-harm: Findings from the Multicentre Study of self-harm in England, 2000–2012. Journal of Affective Disorders, 175(0), 147-151. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.062. Publication link: fce3ce22-768d-4adb-bc27-1ec913ffdd27
  • Kapur, N., Steeg, S., Turnbull, P., Webb, R., Bergen, H., Hawton, K., ... Cooper, J. (2015). Hospital management of suicidal behaviour and subsequent mortality: a prospective cohort study.The Lancet Psychiatry, 2, 809-816. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00169-8. Publication link: 05983268-2d48-40e9-84db-af495eeaec85 | PubMed:26254717
  • Ness, J., Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Cooper, J., Steeg, S., Kapur, N., ... Waters, K. (2015). Alcohol use and misuse, self-harm and subsequent mortality: an epidemiological and longitudinal study from the multicentre study of self-harm in England. Emergency Medicine Journal. DOI: 10.1136/emermed-2013-202753. Publication link: 34b40916-21ce-46c1-8089-bd2a3970184c
  • Owens, D., Kelley, R., Munyombwe, T., Bergen, H., Hawton, K., Cooper, J., ... Kapur, N. (2015). Switching methods of self-harm at repeat episodes: Findings from a multicentre cohort study.Journal of affective disorders, 180. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.03.051. Publication link: 5b01e08b-cbe6-42f3-a140-d157e52dc2b4 | PubMed:25881280
  • Townsend, E., Ness, J., Waters, K., Kapur, N., Turnbull, P., Cooper, J., ... Hawton, K. (2015). Self-harm and life problems: findings from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England.Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-015-1136-9. Publication link: 9980d78e-d019-4335-a9ce-66d5cf574816 | PubMed:26499114
  • Turnbull, P., Webb, R., Kapur, N., Clements, C., Bergen, H., Hawton, K., ... Cooper, J. (2015). Variation by ethnic group in premature mortality risk following self-harm: a multicentre cohort study in England.BMC Psychiatry, 15(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0637-0. Publication link: e2599488-12f9-4c37-8838-7fd462ba8ac3 | PubMed:26482436
  • Bickley, H., Steeg, S., Turnbull, P., Haigh, M., Donaldson, I., Matthews, V., ... Cooper, J. (2013). Self-Harm in Manchester January 2010 to December 2011. (Self-Harm in Manchester). Manchester: University of Manchester.. Publication link: 1a99f8b7-93a7-4115-9b07-772e23d538a7
  • Cooper, J., Steeg, S., Webb, R., Stewart, S. L. K., Applegate, E., Hawton, K., ... Kapur, N. (2013). Risk factors associated with repetition of self-harm in black and minority ethnic (BME) groups: A multi-centre cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148(2-3), 435-439. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.11.018. Publication link: f552540e-36f8-4d99-a052-449c9f2ca8af | PubMed:23228569
  • Kapur, N., Cooper, J., O'Connor, R. C., & Hawton, K. (2013). Non-suicidal self-injury v. attempted suicide: New diagnosis or false dichotomy?British Journal of Psychiatry, 202(5), 326-328. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.116111. Publication link: 7c8cb82c-e455-4b84-9327-543cd4f014c2 | PubMed:23637107
  • Kapur, N., Steeg, S., Webb, R., Haigh, M., Bergen, H., Hawton, K., ... Cooper, J. (2013). Does Clinical Management Improve Outcomes following Self-Harm? Results from the Multicentre Study of Self-Harm in England. PLoS ONE, 8(8), [e70434]. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070434. Publication link: 85506e00-1954-4e52-9b13-2602637741f7
  • Murphy, E., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Purandare, N., Hawton, K., Bergen, H., ... Cooper, J. (2012). Risk factors for repetition and suicide following self-harm in older adults: Multicentre cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(5), 399-404. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.094177. Publication link: f61a5e25-bdcf-4cbc-8940-e3b4c3480291 | PubMed:22157801
  • Steeg, S., Kapur, N., Webb, R., Applegate, E., Stewart, S., Hawton, K., ... Cooper, J. (2012). The development of a population-level clinical screening tool for self-harm repetition and suicide: The ReACT Self-Harm Rule. Psychological Medicine, 42(11), 2383-2394. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291712000347. Publication link: b22fe39a-aa60-43dc-8342-05f3ddced346 | PubMed:22394511
  • Dickson, S., Steeg, S., Gordon, M., Donaldson, I., Matthews, V., Kapur, N., & Cooper, J. (2011). Self-Harm in Manchester 2008-2009. The Centre for Suicide Prevention: University of Manchester.. Publication link: 00f8472e-1629-49c5-b4a5-d00d6c142ffc
  • Murphy, E., Kapur, N., Webb, R., & Cooper, J. (2011). Risk assessment following self-harm: Comparison of mental health nurses and psychiatrists. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(1), 127-139. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05484.x. Publication link: 7ad1dc30-d6ed-4407-86e7-145e3dde9836 | PubMed:20969616
  • Oude Voshaar, R. C., Cooper, J., Murphy, E., Steeg, S., Kapur, N., & Purandare, N. B. (2011). First episode of self-harm in older age: A report from the 10-year prospective manchester self-harm project. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(6), 737-743. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.10m06501. Publication link: 13959854-899f-4900-a871-b9cb4eee50ab | PubMed:21733475
  • Cooper, J., Murphy, E., Webb, R., Hawton, K., Bergen, H., Waters, K., & Kapur, N. (2010). Ethnic differences in self-harm, rates, characteristics and service provision: Three-city cohort study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(3), 212-218. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.072637. Publication link: 9edc4f7e-136b-4e31-bd79-0e17f3f72a49 | PubMed:20807966
  • Kapur, N., Murphy, E., Cooper, J., Bergen, H., Hawton, K., Simkin, S., ... Owens, D. (2008). Psychosocial assessment following self-harm: Results from the Multi-Centre Monitoring of Self-Harm Project. Journal of Affective Disorders, 106(3), 285-293. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.07.010. Publication link: b8085242-beb6-4b5c-b232-11f87a5c999a