SoCRATES - Study of Cognitive Re-Alignment Therapy in Early Schizophrenia
The initial phase of a trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for acutely ill patients with schizophrenia of recent onset showed that it speeded recovery.
To test the hypothesis that CBT in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) during the first or second acute episode of schizophrenia will confer clinical benefit over a follow-up period.
This was an 18-month follow-up of a multicentre prospective trial of CBT or supportive counselling administered as an adjunct to TAU, compared with TAU alone, for patients hospitalised for an acute episode of schizophrenia of recent onset. Primary outcomes were total and positive symptom scales, time to relapse and re-hospitalisation.
There were significant advantages for CBT and supportive counselling over TAU alone on symptom measures at 18 months but no group difference was seen for relapse or re-hospitalisation. There was a significant centre-treatment interaction, reflecting centre differences in the effect of introducing either treatment, but not in the comparison of CBT and supportive counselling. Medication dosage and compliance did not explain group differences.
Adjunctive psychological treatments can have a beneficial long-term effect on symptom reduction.
- Lewis, S., Tarrier, N., Haddock, G., Bentall, R., Kinderman, P., Kingdon, D., Siddle, R., Drake, R., Everitt, J., Leadley, K., Benn, A., Grazebrook, K., Haley, C., Akhtar, S., Davies, L., Palmer, S., Faragher, B., & Dunn, G. 2002, "Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy in early schizophrenia: acute-phase outcomes", British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 181, p. S91-S97.
- Tarrier, N., Lewis, S., Haddock, G., Bentall, R., Drake, R., Kinderman, P., Kingdon, D., Siddle, R., Everitt, J., Leadley, K., Benn, A., Grazebrook, K., Haley, C., Akhtar, S., Davies, L., Palmer, S., & Dunn, G. 2004, "Cognitive-behavioural therapy in first-episode and early schizophrenia - 18-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial", British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 184, pp. 231-239.
- Dunn, G. & Bentall, R. 2007, "Modelling treatment-effect heterogeneity in randomized controlled trials of complex interventions (psychological treatments)", Statistics in Medicine, vol. 26, no. 26, pp. 4719-4745.
- Emsley, R.A., Dunn, G. & White, I.R. 2010, "Mediation and moderation of treatment effects in randomised controlled trials of complex interventions", Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol. 19(3), pp.237-270.
SoCRATES data and example software codes
Please follow this link to download a .zip file containing a sample of the SoCRATES data analysed in the Dunn & Bentall article, and the Emsley, White and Dunn article, and example software code for Mplus and Stata.
Once you have downloaded the .zip file, please open the text file "Read Me First.txt" for information about the other documents.